When talking about operating systems, this question might be which part of which specific OS directly interacts with hardware. For example, Windows and BSD both work on x86 computers and interact with hardware through the peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus, which is a communication channel used to connect computer peripherals to other devices or components inside a computer, but which OS interacts with which hardware through which specific device? It might not be the same for every OS which directly interacts with its own set of hardware.
A computer operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides standard services for application software. Operating systems are found on almost any device containing a computer that includes but is not limited to desktops, laptops, smartphones, and smartwatches, which run on what we call a general-purpose operating system.
A computer might include multiple hardware devices which create connections that allow for communication between each other. The previous example of Windows and BSD, which both work with x86, uses PCI as a communication channel that connects computer peripherals to other devices. Which OS uses specific hardware? For one example, PCI was first introduced by Intel in 1993 and supported a maximum data transfer rate of 132 MBs which uses parallel communication, which Windows 10 can utilize at a top speed of 8GB/s for bandwidth which is faster than the USB 3.0, which has a maximum speed of 625 MB/s which means that Windows 10 interacts with hardware through PCI which is better than USB 3.0 which uses serial communication.
Another example, both Windows and Linux can use I2C. This bus includes multiple devices connected to the same two wires, which allows different components in a computer to communicate which other devices. This bus utilizes serial communication, which uses fewer wires to reduce the number of cables and connections, allowing for more efficient data transmission through this bus.
This example shows how Windows and Linux both use connected components such as USB, PCI, I2C, which utilize parallel and serial communication which determine which hardware is used depending on which type of communication is used which allows computers to interact with their multiple components which make up a whole which creates a complete operating system.
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